Glossary

Abstract

This section contains an alphabetical overview of commands discussed in this document.

A

a2ps

Format files for printing on a PostScript printer, see the section called “Formatting”.

acroread

PDF viewer, see the section called “Previewing formatted files”.

adduser

Create a new user or update default new user information.

alias

Create a shell alias for a command.

alsaconf

Configure sound card using the ALSA driver, see the section called “Drivers and Architecture”.

alsamixer

Tune ALSA sound device output, see the section called “Volume control”.

anacron

Execute commands periodically, does not assume continuously running machine.

apropos

Search the whatis database for strings, see the section called “The whatis and apropos commands”.

apt-get

APT package handling utility, see the section called “APT”.

arecord

Record a sound sample, see the section called “Recording”.

aspell

Spell checker.

at, atq, atrm

Queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution, see the section called “Automatic processes” and the section called “The at command”.

aumix

Adjust audio mixer, see the section called “Volume control”.

(g)awk

Pattern scanning and processing language.

B

bash

Bourne Again SHell, see the section called “The shell” and the section called “Shell scripts”.

batch

Queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution, see the section called “Automatic processes”.

bg

Run a job in the background, see the section called “Interactive processes”.

bitmap

Bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X window System.

bzip2

A block-sorting file compressor, see the section called “Compressing and unpacking with gzip or bzip2.

C

cardctl

Manage PCMCIA cards, see the section called “PCMCIA commands”.

cat

Concatenate files and print to standard output, see the section called “Absolute basics” and the section called “The most important configuration files”.

cd

Change directory, see the section called “Absolute basics”.

cdp/cdplay

An interactive text-mode program for controlling and playing audio CD Roms under Linux, see the section called “CD playing and copying”.

cdparanoia

An audio CD reading utility which includes extra data verification features, see the section called “CD playing and copying”.

cdrecord

Record a CD-R, see the section called “Making a copy with a CD-writer”.

chattr

Change file attributes.

chgrp

Change group ownership, see the section called “The file mask”.

chkconfig

Update or query run level information for system services, see the section called “Tools”.

chmod

Change file access permissions, see the section called “Access rights: Linux's first line of defense”, the section called “The chmod command” and the section called “Changing user and group ownership”.

chown

Change file owner and group, see the section called “The file mask”.

compress

Compress files.

cp

Copy files and directories, see the section called “Creating and deleting files and directories”.

crontab

Maintain crontab files, see the section called “Cron and crontab”.

csh

Open a C shell, see the section called “The shell”.

cut

Remove sections from each line of file(s), see the section called “Some simple examples”.

D

date

Print or set system date and time.

dd

Convert and copy a file (disk dump), see the section called “Using the dd command to dump data”.

df

Report file system disk usage, see the section called “Mount points”.

dhcpcd

DHCP client daemon, see the section called “DHCP”.

diff

Find differences between two files.

dig

Send domain name query packets to name servers, see the section called “The host command”.

dmesg

Print or control the kernel ring buffer.

du

Estimate file space usage.

dump

Backup file system, see the section called “Tools from your distribution”.

E

echo

Display a line of text, see the section called “The path”.

ediff

Diff to English translator.

egrep

Extended grep.

eject

Unmount and eject removable media, see the section called “Using the CD”.

emacs

Start the Emacs editor, see the section called “GNU Emacs”.

exec

Invoke subprocess(es), see the section called “Process creation”.

exit

Exit current shell, see the section called “Absolute basics”.

export

Add function(s) to the shell environment, see the section called “The path”, the section called “Exporting variables” and the section called “Some examples”.

F

fax2ps

Convert a TIFF facsimile to PostScript, see the section called “Formatting”.

fdformat

Format floppy disk, see the section called “Formatting the floppy”.

fdisk

Partition table manipulator for Linux, see the section called “Partition layout and types”.

fetchmail

Fetch mail from a POP, IMAP, ETRN or ODMR-capable server, see the section called “Mail user-agents”.

fg

Bring a job in the foreground, see the section called “Interactive processes”.

file

Determine file type, see the section called “More tools”.

find

Find files, see the section called “Find and locate”.

firefox

Web browser, see the section called “Web browsers”.

fork

Create a new process, see the section called “Process creation”.

formail

Mail (re)formatter, see the section called “Mail user-agents”.

fortune

Print a random, hopefully interesting adage.

ftp

Transfer files (unsafe unless anonymous account is used!)services, see the section called “FTP clients”.

G

galeon

Graphical web browser.

gdm

Gnome Display Manager, see the section called “Init”.

gedit

GUI editor, see the section called “But I want a graphical text editor!”.

(min/a)getty

Control console devices.

gimp

Image manipulation program.

gpg

Encrypt, check and decrypt files, see the section called “GNU Privacy Guard”.

grep

Print lines matching a pattern, see the section called “The grep command” and the section called “More about grep”.

groff

Emulate nroff command with groff, see the section called “Formatting”.

grub

The grub shell, see the section called “GRUB features” and the section called “Upgrading your kernel”.

gv

A PostScript and PDF viewer, see the section called “Previewing formatted files”.

gvim

Graphical version of the vIm editor, see the section called “But I want a graphical text editor!”.

gzip

Compress or expand files, see the section called “Compressing and unpacking with gzip or bzip2.

H

halt

Stop the system, see the section called “Shutdown”.

head

Output the first part of files, see the section called “The head and tail commands”.

help

Display help on a shell built-in command.

host

DNS lookup utility, see the section called “The host command”.

httpd

Apache hypertext transfer protocol server, see the section called “The ip command”.

I

id

Print real and effective UIDs and GIDs, see the section called “Access rights: Linux's first line of defense”.

ifconfig

Configure network interface or show configuration, see the section called “PPP, SLIP, PLIP, PPPOE”.

info

Read Info documents, see the section called “The Info pages”.

init

Process control initialization, see the section called “Process creation”, the section called “Init” and the section called “Init run levels”.

insserv

Manage init scripts, see the section called “Tools”.

iostat

Display I/O statistics, see the section called “I/O resources”.

ip

Display/change network interface status, see the section called “PPP, SLIP, PLIP, PPPOE”.

ipchains

IP firewall administration, see the section called “X11 and TCP forwarding”.

iptables

IP packet filter administration, see the section called “X11 and TCP forwarding”.

J

jar

Java archive tool, see the section called “Java archives”.

jobs

List backgrounded tasks.

K

kdm

Desktop manager for KDE, see the section called “Init”.

kedit

KDE graphical editor, see the section called “But I want a graphical text editor!”.

kill(all)

Terminate process(es), see the section called “Interactive processes”.

konqueror

File manager, (help) browser, see the section called “Making a mess...”.

ksh

Open a Korn shell, see the section called “The shell”.

kwrite

KDE graphical editor, see the section called “But I want a graphical text editor!”.

L

less

more with features, see the section called “less is more.

lilo

Linux boot loader, see the section called “Boot process, Init and shutdown”.

links

Text mode WWW browser, see the section called “The ifconfig command”.

ln

Make links between files, see the section called “Linking files”.

loadkeys

Load keyboard translation tables, see the section called “Keyboard setup”.

locate

Find files, see the section called “Find and locate” and the section called “Cron and crontab”.

logout

Close current shell, see the section called “Text mode”.

lp

Send requests to the LP print service, see the section called “Printing files”.

lpc

Line printer control program, see the section called “Printing files”.

lpq

Print spool queue examination program, see the section called “Printing files”.

lpr

Offline print, see the section called “Printing files”.

lprm

Remove print requests, see the section called “Printing files”.

ls

List directory content, see the section called “Absolute basics”, the section called “Sorts of files” and the section called “More about ls”.

lynx

Text mode WWW browser, see the section called “The ifconfig command”.

M

mail

Send and receive mail, see the section called “Mail user-agents”.

man

Read man pages, see the section called “The man pages”.

mc

Midnight COmmander, file manager, see the section called “Making a mess...”.

mcopy

Copy MSDOS files to/from Unix.

mdir

Display an MSDOS directory.

memusage

Display memory usage, see the section called “Memory resources”.

memusagestat

Display memory usage statistics, see the section called “Memory resources”.

mesg

Control write access to your terminal, see the section called “SUID and SGID”.

mformat

Add an MSDOS file system to a low-level formatted floppy disk, see the section called “Formatting the floppy”.

mkbootdisk

Creates a stand-alone boot floppy for the running system.

mkdir

Create directory, see the section called “Creating and deleting files and directories”.

mkisofs

Create a hybrid ISO9660 filesystem, see the section called “Making a copy with a CD-writer”.

mplayer

Movie player/encoder for Linux, see the section called “Playing music files” and the section called “Video playing, streams and television watching”.

more

Filter for displaying text one screen at the time, see the section called “less is more.

mount

Mount a file system or display information about mounted file systems, see the section called “Mounting a CD”.

mozilla

Web browser, see the section called “The ifconfig command”.

mt

Control magnetic tape drive operation.

mtr

Network diagnostic tool.

mv

Rename files, the section called “Creating and deleting files and directories”.

N

named

Internet domain name server, see the section called “The Domain Name System”.

nautilus

File manager, see the section called “Making a mess...”.

ncftp

Browser program for ftp services (insecure!), see the section called “FTP clients”.

netstat

Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multi-cast memberships, see the section called “AppleTalk” and the section called “Rsh, rlogin and telnet”.

newgrp

Log in to another group, see the section called “Logging on to another group”.

nfsstat

Print statistics about networked file systems.

nice

Run a program with modified scheduling priority, see the section called “Priority”.

nmap

Network exploration tool and security scanner.

ntpd

Network Time Protocol Daemon, see the section called “Date and time zone”.

ntpdate

Set the date and time via an NTP server, see the section called “Date and time zone”.

ntsysv

Simple interface for configuring run levels, see the section called “Tools”.

O

ogle

DVD player with support for DVD menus, see the section called “Video playing, streams and television watching”.

P

passwd

Change password, see the section called “Absolute basics” and the section called “SUID and SGID”.

pccardctl

Manage PCMCIA cards, see the section called “PCMCIA commands”.

pdf2ps

Ghostscript PDF to PostScript translator, see the section called “Formatting”.

perl

Practical Extraction and Report Language.

pg

Page through text output, see the section called “less is more.

pgrep

Look up processes based on name and other attributes, see the section called “Displaying process information”.

ping

Send echo request to a host, see the section called “The ping command”.

play

Play a sound sample, see the section called “Recording”.

pr

Convert text files for printing.

printenv

Print all or part of environment, see the section called “Environment variables”.

procmail

Autonomous mail processor, see the section called “Mail user-agents”.

ps

Report process status, see the section called “Displaying process information” and the section called “I/O resources”.

pstree

Display a tree of processes, see the section called “Displaying process information”.

pwd

Print present working directory, see the section called “Absolute basics”.

Q

quota

Display disk usage and limits, see the section called “Your home directory”.

R

rcp

Remote copy (unsafe!)

rdesktop

Remote Desktop Protocol client, see the section called “The rdesktop protocol”.

reboot

Stop the system, see the section called “Shutdown”.

recode

Convert files to another character set, see the section called “Language”.

renice

Alter priority of a running process, see the section called “Priority”.

restore

Restore backups made with dump, see the section called “Tools from your distribution”.

rlogin

Remote login (telnet, insecure!), see the section called “Rsh, rlogin and telnet” and the section called “Services”.

rm

Remove a file, see the section called “Creating and deleting files and directories”.

rmdir

Remove a directory, see the section called “The tools”.

roff

A survey of the roff typesetting system, see the section called “Formatting”.

rpm

RPM Package Manager, see the section called “RPM packages”.

rsh

Remote shell (insecure!), see the section called “Rsh, rlogin and telnet”.

rsync

Synchronize two directories, see the section called “Using rsync”.

S

scp

Secure remote copy, see the section called “Introduction”.

screen

Screen manager with VT100 emulation, see the section called “Interactive processes”.

set

Display, set or change variable.

setterm

Set terminal attributes.

sftp

Secure (encrypted) ftp, see and the section called “Introduction”.

sh

Open a standard shell, see the section called “The shell”.

shutdown

Bring the system down, see the section called “Shutdown”.

sleep

Wait for a given period, see the section called “Use that idle time!”.

slocate

Security Enhanced version of the GNU Locate, see the section called “Find and locate”.

slrnn

text mode Usenet client, see the section called “Other hosts”.

snort

Network intrusion detection tool.

sort

Sort lines of text files, see the section called “Filtering output”.

spell

Spell checker, see the section called “Combining redirections”.

ssh

Secure shell, see the section called “Introduction”.

ssh-keygen

Authentication key generation, management and conversion, see the section called “Authentication keys”.

stty

Change and print terminal line settings.

su

Switch user, see the section called “The path”, the section called “APT” and the section called “The rdesktop protocol”.

T

tac

Concatenate and print files in reverse, see cat.

tail

Output the last part of files, see the section called “The head and tail commands”.

talk

Talk to a user.

tar

Archiving utility, see the section called “Archiving with tar”.

tcsh

Open a Turbo C shell, see the section called “The shell”.

telinit

Process control initialization, see the section called “Init run levels”.

telnet

User interface to the TELNET protocol (insecure!), see the section called “Rsh, rlogin and telnet”.

tex

Text formatting and typesetting, see the section called “Formatting”.

time

Time a simple command or give resource usage, see the section called “How long does it take?”.

tin

News reading program, see the section called “Other hosts”.

top

Display top CPU processes, see the section called “Displaying process information”, the section called “Memory resources” and the section called “I/O resources”.

touch

Change file timestamps, see the section called “Make space”.

traceroute

Print the route packets take to network host, see the section called “The traceroute command”.

tripwire

A file integrity checker for UNIX systems, see the section called “VNC”.

troff

Format documents, see the section called “Formatting”.

tvime

A high quality television application.

twm

Tab Window Manager for the X Window System.

U

ulimit

Controll resources, see the section called “Limit file sizes”.

umask

Set user file creation mask, see the section called “Logging on to another group”.

umount

Unmount a file system.

uncompress

Decompress compressed files.

uniq

Remove duplicate lines from a sorted file, see the section called “Filtering output”.

up2date

Update RPM packages, see the section called “Systems using RPM packages”.

update

Kernel daemon to flush dirty buffers back to disk.

update-rc.d

Configure init scripts, see the section called “Tools”.

uptime

Display system uptime and average load, see the section called “Displaying process information” and the section called “CPU resources”.

urpmi

Update RPM packages, see the section called “Systems using RPM packages”.

userdel

Delete a user account and related files.

V

vi(m)

Start the vi (improved) editor, see the section called “Vi(m)”.

vimtutor

The Vim tutor.

vmstat

Report virtual memory statistics, see the section called “I/O resources”.

W

w

Show who is logged on and what they are doing.

wall

Send a message to everybody's terminal, see the section called “SUID and SGID”.

wc

Print the number of bytes, words and lines in files, see the section called “The path”.

which

Shows the full path of (shell) commands, see the section called “The path” and the section called “Which”.

who

Show who is logged on, see the section called “SUID and SGID”.

who am i

Print effective user ID.

whois

Query a whois or nicname database, see the section called “The whois command”.

write

Send a message to another user, see the section called “SUID and SGID”.

X

xargs

Build and execute command lines from standard input, see the section called “Find and locate”.

xauth

X authority file utility.

xawtv

An X11 program for watching TV.

xcdroast

Graphical front end to cdrecord, see the section called “Making a copy with a CD-writer”.

xclock

Analog/digital clock for X.

xconsole

Monitor system console messages with X.

xdm

X Display Manager with support for XDMCP, host chooser, see the section called “Init” and the section called “The X Window System”.

xdvi

DVI viewer, see the section called “Previewing formatted files”.

xedit

X Window graphical editor, see the section called “But I want a graphical text editor!”.

xfs

X font server.

xhost

Server access control program for X, see the section called “Telnet and X”.

xine

A free video player, see the section called “Video playing, streams and television watching”.

xinetd

The extended Internet services daemon, see the section called “(x)inetd”.

xload

System load average display for X, see the section called “Graphical tools”.

xlsfonts

Server font list displayer for X.

xmms

Audio player for X, see the section called “mp3 files”.

xpdf

PDF viewer, see the section called “Previewing formatted files”.

xterm

Terminal emulator for X.

Y

yast

System administration tool on Novell SuSE Linux.

yum

Update RPM packages, see the section called “Systems using RPM packages”.

Z

zapping

A TV viewer for the Gnome environment.

zcat

Compress or expand files.

zgrep

Search possibly compressed files for a regular expression.

zmore

Filter for viewing compressed text.