Differing features

The table below shows major diffrences between the standard shell (sh), Korn shell (ksh) and the C shell (csh).


Since the Bourne again shell is a superset of sh, all sh commands will also work in bash. Since the Turbo C shell is a superset of csh, all csh commands will work in tcsh. For more details on these two popular shells, see man bash and man tcsh on your system.

Table 2. Differing Shell Features

  >!Force redirection
  >>!Force append
> file 2>&1> file 2>&1>& fileCombine stdout and stderr
  { } Expand elements in list
` `$( )` `Substitute output of enclosed command
$HOME$HOME$homeHome directory
 ~~Home directory symbol
var=valuevar=valueset var=valueVariable assignment
export varexport var=valsetenv var valSet environment variable
 ${nn} More than 9 args can be referenced
"$@""$@" All args as separate words
$#$#$#argvNumber of arguments
$?$?$statusExit status
$!$! Background exit status
$-$- Current options
. file. filesource fileRead commands in file
 alias x=yalias x yName x stands for y
casecaseswitch/caseChoose alternatives
 cd ~-popd/pushdSwitch directories
donedoneendEnd a loop statement
esacesacendswEnd case or switch
exit [n]exit [n]exit [(expr)]Exit with a status
for/dofor/doforeachLoop through variables
 print -rglobIgnore echo escapes
hashalias -thashstatDisplay hashed commands (tracked aliases)
hash cmdsalias -t cmdsrehashRemember command locations
hash -r unhashForget command locations
 historyhistoryList previous commands
 r!!Redo previous command
 r str!strRedo command that starts with str
 r x=y cmd!cmd:s/x/y/Edit command, then execute
if [ $i -eq 5 ]if ((i==5))if ($i==5)Sample if statement
fifiendifEnd if statement
ulimitulimitlimitSet resource limits
pwdpwddirsPrint working directory
readread$<Read from terminal
trap 2trap 2onintrIgnore interrupts
 unaliasunaliasRemove aliases
untiluntil Begin until loop
while/dowhile/dowhileBegin while loop

Bash specific features:

More information:

You should at least read one manual, being the manual of your shell. Print it out and take it home, study it whenever you have 5 minutes.